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The emperor penguins are unusual for their large size. They range in size from one foot to four feet tall. Their mating is difficult because their mating season is in the deep winter of the Antarctic. They are also odd because unlike other penguins they lay only one egg instead of two. The eggs are incubated on top of the feet and covered by a flap of skin to keep the egg from rolling off the feet onto the ice where the egg would freeze in a matter of seconds. After the egg is hatched, the baby emperor penguins gather into a rookery of penguins to keep warm. Only being fed sporadically, many juveniles die at this time.